Geography


A Himalayan nation located in South Asia, Nepal is roughly trapezoidal shape with 800 kilometers long and 200 kilometers wide. It has an area of 147,181 km2 and it is located between latitudes 26° and 31°N, and longitudes 80° and 89°E. Nepal is located in between two giant nations India and China, with Pakistan, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Maldives being its other immediate neighbors. Nepal shares its borders at many places particularly the Indian states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Sikkim. While on the north, Nepal shares its borders with China and Tibet.

Broadly, Nepal is divided into three physiological areas—the Mountain, Hilly and Terai region. These ecological belts run East-West and are vertically intersected by North to South flowing Rivers.

The southern lowland known as Terai borders the neighboring India while the mountains form the region of most famed Himalayan Mountain Range. Major Rivers that flow north to south are Koshi, Narayani, and Karnali which originate from the Himalayan glaciers. The climate in this region ranges from subtropical to tropical. The Shiwalik or Churia range constitutes the foothills of Mahabharat Range ranging from 700 to 1,000 metres. Inner Tarai more popularly called as Bhitri Madhes lies north of these foothills.

The Hill Region (Pahad) varies in altitude from 800 to 4,000 meters and largely has subtropical climate in the region. The Mahabharat Range reaching from 1,500 to 3,000 meters is the southern limit of this region, with subtropical river valleys and hills reaching up to the north of this range. Population density is particularly high in the valleys.

The Mountain Region (Himal) situated in the Great Himalayan Range makes up the northern part of Nepal. It contains the highest peak in the world including Mount Everest of 8,848 metres high from sea level. Mount Everest has its border with neighboring China. Seven other peaks above 8000 meters are situated in Nepal. They are Lhotse, Makalu, Cho Oyu, Kanchenjunga, Dhaulagiri, Annapurna and Mount Manaslu.

Nepal basically experiences five types of seasons--summer, monsoon, autumn, winter and spring. Monsoon in Nepal is a result of the drifting of the rain bearing clouds which originate from the Bay of Bengal. It normally starts in the East and progresses to the West.